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Term Definition
Deaffrication See Phonological Processes – Substitution
Deafness A term used to describe varying degrees of hearing loss, from partial to total loss, mild to profound. The following terms are used to describe specific types of deafness:

  • Adventitious – Loss of hearing due to an injury or disease after birth.
  • Catarrhal – Loss of hearing due to an inflammation of the mucous membrane of air passageways.
  • Conductive – Loss of hearing due to air pressure not reaching the cochlea through outer and middle ear.
  • Cortical (or central) – Loss of hearing due to the damage of the auditory nerve or in the cortex of the brain.
  • High Frequency – Loss of hearing of high frequency sounds.
  • Hysterical (or psychogenic) – Perceived loss of hearing due to emotional distress to escape an uncomfortable situation.
  • Industrial (or occupational or noise induced) – Loss of hearing due to long term exposure to loud noise.
  • Low Tone – Loss of hearing of low frequency (low tone) sounds.
  • Postlingual – Loss of hearing after speech and language is developed.
  • Prelingual – Loss of hearing before speech and language is developed.
  • Psychogenic (or hysterical) – Perceived loss of hearing due to emotional distress to escape an uncomfortable situation.
  • Pure Word (Wernicke’s aphasia) – Varying degrees of loss of spoken word comprehension without any effect on speaking, reading or writing.
  • Sensorineural – Loss of hearing due to a pathological condition in the inner ear.
  • Tone – Inability to recognize the difference between two sounds of differing frequencies. (Not able to recognize that you or another singer is off key.)
  • Toxic – Loss of hearing due to a drug or overdose of a drug.
Link 1: The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
Link 2: Wikipedia – Hearing Loss
Delayed Language See Language
Dental Consonant The place of articulation of consonant sounds in which the teeth contact either the tongue or bottom lip to shape airflow. There are two types of dental consonants in English:

Labiodentals: /f/, /v/
Linguadentals (interdentals): /th/ or /Ɵ/, /ethe/ or /ð/

See also Place of Articulation, Labiodental Consonant, Linguadental Consonant.

Dental Lisp See Lisp
Depalatalization See Phonological Processes – Substitution
Developmental Aphasia Also called childhood aphasia, this language disorder develops as a result of some central nervous system dysfunction in childhood, resulting in impaired language skills.

See Aphasia

Developmental – Behavioral Pediatrician A pediatrician with additional subspecialty training in developmental-behavioral pediatrics. The developmental-behavioral pediatrician can evaluate and treat or recommend a course of treatment with a specialist (occupational, physical, speech, etc.) children and adolescents with a wide range of developmental and behavioral issues including.

Link 1: The Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Link 2: What is a developmental-behavioral pediatrician – University of Washington.edu
Developmental Expressive Language Disorder See Expressive Language Disorder
Devoicing Final Consonant See Phonological Processes – Assimilation
Diadonchokinetic Rate
The ability to rapidly and repetitively move the articulators. (Adiadochokinesis is the inability to rapidly and repetitively move articulators.)The Diadochokinetic Rate is a test used by speech and language pathologists to diagnosis problems with motor control or speech planning.

Link 1: Heathline.com Diadochokinetice Rate
Link 2: Diadochokinetic Syllable Rate Worksheet – University of Washington
Diphthong See Vowel
Distortions See articulation disorder
Double Consonants See Consonants
Dysarthria Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder where the muscles that control the articulators become weak, move slowly or do not move at all typically due to neurological injury or disease. It can effect timing, speed, pitch, volume, rate, steadiness, range and tone of speech.

Link 1: ASHA – Dysarthria
Link 2: Wikipedia – Dysarthria
(Also Disfluency)
Speech with interruptions in the flow of speech sounds. For example speech with blocks like repetitions, prolongations and hesitations. Stuttering.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Dysfluency
Link 2: The Suttering (and cluttering) Foundation
Link 3: Suttering – Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Products for SLPs and Success Stories
Link 4: Cluttering  – Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Products for SLPs and Success Stories
Dysphagia Difficulty with swallowing.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Dysphagia
Link 2: What is dysphagia – National Institute for Deafness and Communication Disorders

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