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Term Definition
Scanning Speech Scanning Speech (also know as Explosive Speech) is a type of ataxia dystheria. It presents as spoken words broken up into separate syllables with noticeable pauses and varying emphasis. The sentence Playing soccer is fun might sound like “Play (pause) ing soc (with force then pause) cer is fun.” Scanning speech is often associated with MS (multiple sclerosis).

Link 1: National MS Society – Speech Problems
Semantics The study of the meaning of words, phrases, signs and symbols.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Semantics
Sensorimotor Stage See Cognitive Development
Sensorineural Deafness See Deafness
Sensory Aphasia See Wernicke’s Aphasia
Sentence The linguistic unit that contains two or more morphemes that express a complete thought.

  • Sentence Types
    • Declarative – a statement.
    • Exclamatory – a sentence uttered with emotion.
    • Imperative – a command.
    • Interrogative – asks a question or a request.
Link 1: Wikipedia – Sentence (Linguistics)
Link 2: The Kinds of Sentences and Their Punctuation – Towson University
Sibilant A fricative sound which is accompanied by a hissing sound that is produced by directing a stream of air with the tongue toward teeth held closely together /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/ (/tʃ/, /dʒ/ are affricates with a consonant sound beginning as a stop, but expelled as a fricative).

Link 1: Wikipedia – Sibilant
Sign Language See American Sign Language
Slide A method used by stutterers to control dysfluencies whereby the initial sound of a word is prolonged until they are able to move to the next sound.

Link 1: The Suttering Foundation
Link 2: Suttering – Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Products for SLPs and Success Stories
Link 3: Wikipedia – Stuttering
Slit Fricative See Fricative
Speech Language Pathologist A licensed and certified individual who is qualified to diagnose and treat speech, language, voice and feeding disorders.

Link 1: What is a Speech Language Pathologist – SuperDuper Inc. 
Speech Language Pathology The study of speech, language and voice disorders to provide diagnoses and treatments.

Link 1: History of Speech – Language Pathology University of Buffalo Judy Dechan
Link 2: Wikipedia Speech Language Pathology
Link 3: American Speech and Hearing Association – Speech Language Pathology
Speechreading See lipreading
Spinal Accessory Nerve See Cranial Nerves
Stopping Stopping is when a fricative sound like /f/ or /s/ or affricate like /ch/ or /j/ is substituted with a stop consonant like /d/ or /p/. For example “dan” for “fan”. Typically eliminated by 3- 4 ½ years depending on the sound. (See Phonological Disorder)
Stridency Deletion See Phonological Processes – Syllable Structure
Strident Lisp See Lisp
Stridor A high-pitched breathing sound caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway which creates a turbulent air flow in the larynx. Stridor should not be ignored as it could be indicative of a serious obstruction from a foreign object, a tumor or epiglottis.

Link 1: Stridor – Medscape
Link 3: Wikipedia – Stridor
Stroke A medical emergency when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or severely reduced depriving the brand of vital oxygen and nutrients. The brain cells in the affected area begin to die quickly. Depending on the location, the damage done to the brain by a stroke can impair speech.

See also Aphasia

Link 1: Webmd: Stroke

Stuttering Stuttering is a fluency disorder. Stuttering is sometimes referred to as stammering or disfluent speech. In short, stuttering is any interruption in the flow of speech. It’s quite common for children between ages 2 and 5. In fact, about 5% of children will develop stuttering during their childhood. It’s part of the process of learning how to speak. For most children, stuttering issues get better on their own, however for some kids, less than 1%, stuttering will continue and perhaps get worse after age five. Stuttering is twice as common in boys than girls and 3 to 4 times more likely to persist into adulthood for boys. Stuttering should be treated because it can affect a child’s academics and social interactions. It often causes emotional problems such as anxiety, fear or avoidance which can limit the potential of a child.

The primary characteristics include:

  • Blocking – The stop or pause what prevents smooth sound production.
    • Clonic – a block characterized by repetitions.
    • Tonic – a bloc characterized by prolongations and hesitations.
  • Repetitions of sounds or syllables.
  • Interjections – adding in extra sounds like “um”.
  • Circumlocutions – talking around a word.
  • Substitutions – replacing a hard to say word with an easier alternative.
  • Prolongations – extending a sound too long before transitioning to the next sound.
Link 1: The Suttering Foundation
Link 2: Suttering – Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis, Products for SLPs and Success Stories
Link 3: Wikipedia – Stuttering
Link 4: Essential Speech Skills for School-Age Children Who Stutter – Mark Allen Ph.D. ASHA Presentation
Substituions See articulation disorder.

See phonological processes.

See stuttering.

Suffix A bound morpheme that is placed after a root word to form a new word. For example manly, careless.
Syntax The rules that guide the construction of the different parts of speech in a sentence to convey meaning.

Link 1: Syntax – Literary Devices Definition and Examples
Link 2: Wikipedia – Syntax

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