A communication disorder that is characterized by interruptions in the flow of oral language. Stuttering and Cluttering are fluency disorders. (See stuttering and cluttering for more details)
Frequency modulation (FM) systems are a type of amplification device that consists of a transmitter and receiver. The speaker talks into the transmitter microphone, and the signal is sent through a special radio frequency back to the receiver, which is connected to the hearing aid(s) in the ear of the person with hearing loss. FM systems are often used in classroom settings.
See also Hearing Loss, Amplification Devices.
Formal Operational Stage
See Cognitive Development
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel created by movement of articulators to create a friction sound. Fricatives are also called spirants. Some fricatives are voiced (vocal cords vibrate) like the /v/ in vine and some are voiceless (vocal cords do not vibrate) like the /f/ in fine.
Groove Fricative – a consonant formed by placing the tip of the tongue directly behind the front teeth with the blade of the tongue (the portion of the tongue just behind the tip) slightly grooved so that the breath stream can escape through the central channel. For example /s/, /z/
Slit Fricative – a consonant formed by forcing air through a narrow opening between the upper teeth and lower lip. For example (/f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/)
Fronting is the term used when sounds that should be made at the back of the mouth, such as /g/ or /k/are substituted with a sound made in the front like /t/ or /d/. A child who is fronting might say “dee” instead of “key” or say “doh” instead of “go”. Typically eliminated by 3 or 3 ½ years. See Phonological Disorder.