A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Term Definition
Labial Assimilation A type of consonant assimilation (or consonant harmony) in which a non-labial sound is replaced with a labial sound that is similar to another labial sound in the word. Labial refers to the lips; labial sounds are produced by moving the lips while manipulating airflow.
For example, the word bed has the consonants /b/ (labial) and /d/ (non-labial). Labial assimilation occurs when the /d/ is changed to a labial sound to assimilate, or sound like, the labial /b/. The result would sound like /beb/, with the second /b/ (labial) replacing the /d/ (non-labial).See also Assimilation, Phonological Processes, Labial Consonant.
Labial Consonant The place of articulation of a consonant sound that is produced by manipulating one or both lips. There are two types of labial consonants in English.

Bilabial: /p/, /b/, /m/, /w/

Labiodental: /f/, /v/

See also Place of Articulation, Bilabial Consonant, Labiodental Consonant.

  1. The rounding or pursing of the lips.
  2. See under phonological processes
Link 1: Wikipedia – Labialization
Labiodental Consonant A type of labial sound that is produced by making contact between the teeth and top lip to shape the airflow. Labiodental describes the place of articulation. In English, there are two labiodental consonants:

/f/ as in fox
/v/ as in violin

See also Labial Consonant, Dental Consonant, Place of Articulation.

  1. Babbling
  2. Articulation disorder associated with sounds produced by the elevation of the tip of the tongue. /l/, /r/, /t/ and /d/.
Lambdacism Lambdacism – Articulation issues of the /l/ sound (excessive use or unusual use of the /l/). The substitution of the /l/ sound for another sound or the substitution of the /l/ sound with another sound typically the /r/. For example Amelica instead of America.
Language The structured and symbolic system for communication made up of sounds and the rules that form the sounds into words and words into sentences to express thoughts, intentions, experiences, questions, feelings, etc.

  • Automatic
    • Reflexive sounds made in the first month of life.
    • Habitual use of words used so much that they are meaningless.
  • Body Language – see kinesics.
  • Delayed – The inability to comprehend or speak language at the expected developmental age.
  • Egocentric – An early stage in the development of language when a child’s verbalizations are regarding his/her own needs.
  • Emergent – The development process of acquiring language (comprehension and speech) during infancy and early childhood.
  • Expressive – Ability to communicate via spoken or written word.
  • Gestures – See kinesics
  • Non standard – Language that is notably different from accepted norms of a language.
  • Oral – Communication through the spoken word.
  • Prelinguistic – Verbalization that precedes the first spoken words. For example, crying, cooing and babbling.
  • Receptive – Comprehension of sounds, words and sentences.
  • Sign Language – A means of communication with gestures for the deaf.
Link 1: Wikipedia – Language
Language Disorder A language disorder is any difficulty with the expressive language (sharing ideas, thoughts or emotions) or receptive language (comprehension) ranging from a complete inability to express oneself or comprehend to minor variances in syntax.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Language Disorder
Link 2: National Institute of Health – Language Disorder
Laryngomalacia This means soft larynx and is the most common congenital abnormality of the larynx. It presents as soft tissue (cartilage) above the vocal cords that flops into the airway when a child breathes. It is the most common cause of stridor, noisy breathing in infants. This condition usually corrects itself by age two. The cause is unknown.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Laryngomalacia
Link 2: Medscape – Laryngomalacia
Lateral Lisp See Lisp
Lax Consonant See Consonants
Lenis Consonant See Consonants
Leukoplakia The word means white patch. Leukoplakia is a benign white growth on the vocal folds, typically anteriorly. Leukpplakia can also form in other places such as tongue, guns, cheeks, palate, floor of the mouth etc.). Typically anteriorly. The symptoms are a hoarse voice and moderate cough. This is typically caused by smoking. These white patches can be a precursor to cancer.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Leukoplakia
Link 2: Leukoplakia – Mayo Clinic
Lingual Lisp See Lisp
Linguist A person that studies the form / structure, meaning and context of language.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Famous Linguists
Linguistic The study of the form / structure, meaning and context of language.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Linguistics
Link 2: Linguistics 101 – IE Languages
Linguistic Components Components of Linguistics

  • Phonology
    • Meaningful combination of sounds.
  • Morphology
    • The formation of words.
  • Pragmatic
    • Social context use of language.
  • Semantic
    • Meanings of words, sentences.
  • Syntax
    • Construction of the different parts of speech in a sentence to convey meaning.
Link 1: Language and Its Components – University of West Florida PPT
Link 2: Linguistics 101 – IE Languages
Lipreading Also know as speechreading. Is a method of understanding speech by studying the movements of the lips, face and tongue while taking into account the context, knowledge of the language and any residual hearing.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Lipreading
Link 2: Lipreading.org Online lip reading training course and games.
Lip rounding The formation of a circle or semi-circle to produce certain vowel sounds. /u/, /U/, /o/, /ɔ/

Link 1: Wikipedia – Roundedness
Lips One of two soft and movable fleshy body parts at the opening of the mouth used in the articulation of sound and speech.

Link 1: Wikipedia – Lips
Lisp Imperfect production of one or more of the six sibilant consonants (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʒ/) which is typically caused by an improper placement of the tongue or abnormalities of the articulators.

  • Dental Lisp – Tongue placed against the upper or lower central incisors during (/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/)
  • Frontal Lisp – substitution of /θ/ (as in thin), /ð/ (as in this) for a sibilant phoneme. (Examples; thorry for sorry or thoo for zoo). This is produced by obstructing air by placing the tip of the tongue too far forward against the teeth or the alveolar ridge.
  • Lateral Lisp – Improper production of sibilant sounds due to excessive release of air around the sides of the tongue which produces a sound similar to sh /ʃ/. (Example Shun for sun).
  • Lingual Lisp – See Frontal Lisp
  • Nasal Lisp – substitution of the a snorted /n/ for a sibilant when the air is deflected backwards and escapes through the nose.
  • Occluded Lisp – substitution of a /t/ or /d/ for a sibilant. (Example tilly for silly)
  • Protusion Lisp – See Frontal Lisp
  • Strident Lisp – when a whistling sound is produced with the /s/ or /z/.
Link 1: Wikipedia – Lisp
Link 2: Lisping – Encyclopedia of Children’s Health
Link 3: What is a lisp – SuperDuper productions PDF

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z